1 From Paul, a slave of Christ Jesus, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God.
2 This gospel he promised beforehand through his prophets in the holy scriptures,
3 concerning his Son who was a descendant of David with reference to the flesh,
4 who was appointed the Son-of-God-in-power according to the Holy Spirit by the resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord.
By Bob, Chris and Brianne
From Paul, a slave of Christ Jesus, called to be an apostle-
• Meaning Paul, previously named Saul, identified himself as a servant of the Lord, and he recalls his calling as an apostle.
• Strong’s Definitions: δοῦλος; doo’-los; a slave (literal or figurative, involuntary or voluntary; frequently, therefore in a qualified sense of subjection or subserviency)
• from δέω; deh’-o; to bind
• a person held in servitude as the chattel of another
• one that is completely subservient to a dominating influence
• Thayer’s Greek Lexicon
• called to (the discharge of) some office: κλητός ἀπόστολος, i. e. divinely selected and appointed
• Strong’s Definitions: ἀπόστολος; apóstolos, ap-os’-tol-os; a delegate; specially, an ambassador of the Gospel; officially a commissioner of Christ (“apostle”) (with miraculous powers.
• John Gill : an apostle was one that was (1) immediately sent by Christ, and had his (2) authority and doctrine directly from him, and (3) had a power of working miracles from him, in confirmation of the truth of his mission, authority, and doctrine.
(1) immediately sent by Christ
• Acts 22:17-21 (NET) 17 When I returned to Jerusalem and was praying in the temple, I fell into a trance 18 and saw the Lord saying to me, ‘Hurry and get out of Jerusalem quickly, because they will not accept your testimony about me.’ 19 I replied, ‘Lord, they themselves know that I imprisoned and beat those in the various synagogues who believed in you. 20 And when the blood of your witness Stephen was shed, I myself was standing nearby, approving, and guarding the cloaks of those who were killing him.’ 21 Then he said to me, ‘Go, because I will send you far away to the Gentiles.'”
(2) authority and doctrine directly from him,
• Galatians 1:11-12 (NET) 11 Now I want you to know, brothers and sisters, that the gospel I preached is not of human origin. 12 For I did not receive it or learn it from any human source; instead I received it by a revelation of Jesus Christ.
3) had a power of working miracles from him, in confirmation of the truth of his mission, authority, and doctrine
• Mark 16:20 (NET) 20 They went out and proclaimed everywhere, while the Lord worked with them and confirmed the word through the accompanying signs.]]
• Hebrews 2:4 (NET) 4 while God confirmed their witness with signs and wonders and various miracles and gifts of the Holy Spirit distributed according to his will.
• Acts 14:3 (NET) 3 So they stayed there for a considerable time, speaking out courageously for the Lord, who testified to the message of his grace, granting miraculous signs and wonders to be performed through their hands.
• Why does the idea of being Christ’s slave rub against our fallen human nature?
• How can we distinguish God’s call?
• What is the difference between the Apostles of the Bible vs those that may be called apostle today?
Set apart for the gospel of God –
• Meaning Paul was separated to teach God’s gospel.
• Strong’s Definitions: εὐαγγέλιον, euangélion, yoo-ang-ghel’-ee-on; a good message, i.e. the Gospel.
• Luke 2:10,11 (NET) 10 But the angel said to them, “Do not be afraid! Listen carefully, for I proclaim to you good news that brings great joy to all the people: 11 Today your Savior is born in the city of David. He is Christ the Lord.
• 1 Corinthians 15:1-8 (NET) 1 Now I want to make clear for you, brothers and sisters, the gospel that I preached to you, that you received and on which you stand, 2 and by which you are being saved, if you hold firmly to the message I preached to you – unless you believed in vain. 3 For I passed on to you as of first importance what I also received – that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures, 4 and that he was buried, and that he was raised on the third day according to the scriptures, 5 and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. 6 Then he appeared to more than five hundred of the brothers and sisters at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have fallen asleep. 7 Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles. 8 Last of all, as though to one born at the wrong time, he appeared to me also.
This gospel he promised beforehand through his prophets in the holy scriptures-
• Meaning the Gospel was promised by God through the Old Testament scriptures and prophets. See below Old Testament verses.
When the Messiah would arrive is foretold
• Daniel 9:24-26 (NET) 24 “Seventy weeks have been determined concerning your people and your holy city to put an end to rebellion, to bring sin to completion, to atone for iniquity, to bring in perpetual righteousness, to seal up the prophetic vision, and to anoint a most holy place. 25 So know and understand: From the issuing of the command to restore and rebuild Jerusalem until an anointed one, a prince arrives, there will be a period of seven weeks and sixty-two weeks. It will again be built, with plaza and moat, but in distressful times. 26 Now after the sixty-two weeks, an anointed one will be cut off and have nothing. As for the city and the sanctuary, the people of the coming prince will destroy them. But his end will come speedily like a flood. Until the end of the war that has been decreed there will be destruction.
The Virgin Birth foretold
• Isaiah 7:14 (NET) 14 For this reason the sovereign master himself will give you a confirming sign. Look, this young woman is about to conceive and will give birth to a son. You, young woman, will name him Immanuel.
Location of his birth foretold
• Micah 5:2 (NET) 2 (5:1) As for you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, seemingly insignificant among the clans of Judah – from you a king will emerge who will rule over Israel on my behalf, one whose origins are in the distant past.
John the Baptists ministry foretold
• Malachi 3:1 (NET) 1 “I am about to send my messenger, who will clear the way before me. Indeed, the Lord you are seeking will suddenly come to his temple, and the messenger of the covenant, whom you long for, is certainly coming,” says the LORD who rules over all.
Christ’s Miracles foretold
• Isaiah 29:18-19 (NET) 18 At that time the deaf will be able to hear words read from a scroll, and the eyes of the blind will be able to see through deep darkness. 19 The downtrodden will again rejoice in the LORD; the poor among humankind will take delight in the Holy One of Israel.
Arriving to Jerusalem on a donkey
• Zechariah 9:9 (NET) 9 Rejoice greatly, daughter of Zion! Shout, daughter of Jerusalem! Look! Your king is coming to you: he is legitimate and victorious, humble and riding on a donkey – on a young donkey, the foal of a female donkey.
Suffering for our sin is foretold
• Isaiah 53:5-9 (NET) 5 He was wounded because of our rebellious deeds, crushed because of our sins; he endured punishment that made us well; because of his wounds we have been healed. 6 All of us had wandered off like sheep; each of us had strayed off on his own path, but the LORD caused the sin of all of us to attack him. 7 He was treated harshly and afflicted, but he did not even open his mouth. Like a lamb led to the slaughtering block, like a sheep silent before her shearers, he did not even open his mouth. 8 He was led away after an unjust trial – but who even cared? Indeed, he was cut off from the land of the living; because of the rebellion of his own people he was wounded. 9 They intended to bury him with criminals, but he ended up in a rich man’s tomb, because he had committed no violent deeds, nor had he spoken deceitfully.
How he would suffer is foretold
• Psalm 22:1-18 (NET) 1 My God, my God, why have you abandoned me? I groan in prayer, but help seems far away. 2 My God, I cry out during the day, but you do not answer, and during the night my prayers do not let up. 3 You are holy; you sit as king receiving the praises of Israel. 4 In you our ancestors trusted; they trusted in you and you rescued them. 5 To you they cried out, and they were saved; in you they trusted and they were not disappointed. 6 But I am a worm, not a man; people insult me and despise me. 7 All who see me taunt me; they mock me and shake their heads. 8 They say, “Commit yourself to the LORD! Let the LORD rescue him! Let the LORD deliver him, for he delights in him.” 9 Yes, you are the one who brought me out from the womb and made me feel secure on my mother’s breasts. 10 I have been dependent on you since birth; from the time I came out of my mother’s womb you have been my God. 11 Do not remain far away from me, for trouble is near and I have no one to help me. 12 Many bulls surround me; powerful bulls of Bashan hem me in. 13 They open their mouths to devour me like a roaring lion that rips its prey. 14 My strength drains away like water; all my bones are dislocated; my heart is like wax; it melts away inside me. 15 The roof of my mouth is as dry as a piece of pottery; my tongue sticks to my gums. You set me in the dust of death. 16 Yes, wild dogs surround me – a gang of evil men crowd around me; like a lion they pin my hands and feet. 17 I can count all my bones; my enemies are gloating over me in triumph. 18 They are dividing up my clothes among themselves; they are rolling dice for my garments.
The resurrection foretold
• Psalm 16:10 (NET) 10 You will not abandon me to Sheol; you will not allow your faithful follower to see the Pit.
• Who is Paul writing to within Rome? See Romans 1:5-6.
• Why would Paul refer back to the Old Testament scriptures and Jewish prophets when speaking to Gentiles?
• What should be our attitude in studying the Old Testament?
concerning his Son who was a descendant of David with reference to the flesh-
• The Son, meaning Jesus in his divinity, the second person of the Trinity.
• Joseph was a direct descendant of King David (tribe of Judah). Many scholars believe that the genealogy listed in Luke 3 is actually of Mary instead of Joseph ( although Joseph is listed because females are not included in genealogies). However. Other scholars believe that the decent from David can only be proved through Joseph, Jesus’ ‘adoptive’ father.
• Jesus reference to the flesh means He was born into human form – not only the Son of God but also the Son of Man. The flesh was needed that as a man he could die for man.
• Thayer’s Greek Lexicon for flesh. σάρξ sárx, sarx; Meaning the body; the body of a man; used of natural or physical origin, generation or relationship.
• 2 Samuel 7:12-16 (NET) 12 When the time comes for you to die, I will raise up your descendant, one of your own sons, to succeed you, and I will establish his kingdom. 13 He will build a house for my name, and I will make his dynasty permanent. 14 I will become his father and he will become my son. When he sins, I will correct him with the rod of men and with wounds inflicted by human beings. 15 But my loyal love will not be removed from him as I removed it from Saul, whom I removed from before you. 16 Your house and your kingdom will stand before me permanently; your dynasty will be permanent.'”
• Matthew 1:1-2 (NET) 1 This is the record of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham. 2 Abraham was the father of Isaac, Isaac the father of Jacob, Jacob the father of Judah and his brothers,
• Matthew 1:16 (NET) 16 and Jacob the father of Joseph, the husband of Mary, by whom Jesus was born, who is called Christ.
Do you know of any friends or family who were adopted and then received an inheritance from their parents?
Why did Jesus need to come in the flesh?
Why did Jesus, the Jewish Messiah, have to come through the line of David?
Can you explain how Jesus’s two natures were useful for our redemption?
who was appointed the Son-of-God-in-power according to the Holy Spirit by the resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord-
This is a difficult passage with several interpretations. We agree with with the…
Cambridge Bible for Schools and College commentary
The present passage will thus mean: ‘He was declared to be the Son of God, with power, (even as the Holy Ghost foretold,) in consequence of the ressurection.’
We accept the translation, Holy Spirit, instead of, Spirit of holiness, as other English versions translate the phrase. By translating as Holy Spirit, all the persons of the Trinity are mentined in this passage. Other English versions translate this phrase as Spirit of holiness which then refers to Jesus’ divine nature that appoints Himself in contrast to his human nature spoken of in the previous verse.
Acts 13:33-35 (NET)
33 that this promise God has fulfilled to us, their children, by raising Jesus, as also it is written in the second psalm, ‘You are my Son; today I have fathered you.’ 34 But regarding the fact that he has raised Jesus from the dead, never again to be in a state of decay, God has spoken in this way: ‘I will give you the holy and trustworthy promises made to David.’ 35 Therefore he also says in another psalm, ‘You will not permit your Holy One to experience decay.’
Listening Prayer method – a method where you write what you think God would say to you after meditating and studying a Bible passage.
Don’t be afraid to be My slave. I will give you desires in how to serve Me. I will direct your path to serve Me in ways that fulfill those desires I created within you.
Start moving, and I will guide you where I want you. As you serve, your desires will be confirmed and strengthened to prove to you that this is My calling for you.